Thursday, March 23, 2017

'Political Parties Disintegrating Before Our Very Eyes'

By Sandy Fitzgerald   |   Sunday, 12 Mar 2017 10:52 AM

The nation's political parties are "disintegrating before our very eyes," Ohio Gov. John Kasich said Sunday, but that doesn't mean he's planning to turn into a Democrat.

"I think more and more people across this country see no purpose for political parties," Kasich, a GOP presidential candidate who held on until nearly the end of the primary races, told NBC "Meet the Press" anchor Chuck Todd."You talk to people and they're more and more Independents because of the squabbling."
There is too much "consumption" about who gains what politically on issues, and Kasich said that kind of focus turns is dangerous.
"Life is short, and if all you focus on in life is what's in it for me, you're a loser," said Kasich. "You are a big-time loser. This country better be careful we're not losing the soul of our country, because we play politics and we forget people who are in need."
However, when Todd asked Kasich if he'd still be a Republican, if he was a private citizen and not an elected official, Kasich flatly refused switching parties.
"I'm not going to be a Democrat because the problem is they're top-down people," said Kasich, while Republicans work "from the bottom up."
At this point, though, Republicans are busy trying to fulfill campaign promises rather than putting people first, complained Kasich.
That applies to the American Health Care Act as well, Kasich.
"I would say in this bill you have to be in a position where you reform the system, but you don't leave people behind," said Kasich. "You just can't do it because these are people that could be in your family, live right next door to you."
Still, the governor said he's also not ready to join with independents.
"I'm a Republican because I'm a conservative," the governor said. "We have to examine our beliefs and philosophy."
I assume Kasich is referring to the Democrats and Republicans when he talks about disintegrating parties.  Sounds good to me.  They're both useless anyway - useless at least to the White Working Class.  Hell they're useless to the entire working class of all races.
It seems to me the only party that is not disintegrating is the ANP.  Except for about ten or so years in the late 80's and early 90's when we were sort of "dormant", we've been around since 1959.  In the last ten years our number of Official Supporters have been growing.  Slowly I'll admit, but it's been a steady growth.
Our leadership is sound and steady, and there is already a solid plan in place should Chairman Suhayda feel the need to retire.  In other words, we have a plan for the future and we are solid.
So let's keep moving forward.  Look to the future, and not the past.  If the Democrats and Republicans ever do break up, just imagine what that would do for us!  Our membership/Official Supporters would go through the roof!
Dan 88!

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Steve Forbes to Newsmax: Border Tax 'Ridiculous;' Hits Those Who Voted for Trump

By Bill Hoffmann   |   Thursday, 09 Mar 2017 03:20 PM

The "border tax" proposed by House Speaker Paul Ryan is a "ridiculous" idea that will cause the price of gasoline and other goods to skyrocket, Steve Forbes, chairman and editor-in-chief of Forbes Media, tells Newsmax TV.

"It's ridiculous. It's a step to value added tax and value added taxes hit the very people who have elected Donald Trump president," Forbes said Thursday to Steve Malzberg on "America Talks Live."

"It's going to raise the cost of gasoline for millions of motors 30 cents a gallon, raise the cost of vehicles $2,500, raise the cost of stuff you buy at Wal-Mart and Kmart. Do you want to do that to finance a corporate tax cut? Oh, I can see the Democrat ads on this already."
As well, Forbes said, countries around the world affected by such a tax would retaliate, "so at the end of the day you'd have disrupted everything, you divide your base."
The border tax, a key component of a tax-reform package being pushed by House Republicans, would slap as much as a 20 percent U.S. tax on imports, while exports would be exempt.
The Trump administration has yet to officially weigh in on the GOP proposal, but last week Larry Kudlow, a top economic adviser to Trump's presidential campaign, said the White House leaning towards such a a levy.
Sen. Jeff Flake, an Arizona Republican, said on Wednesday it would be bad for business.
"Whether it is raw material or specialty parts, roughly 50 percent of our nation's imports consist of inputs for U.S. production and manufacturing," Flake said in a speech to the Senate.


I've been saying that for years - ever since Obama first talked about it during his first presidential campaign.  If you tax companies who outsource, they'll just raise their prices to cover it.  They're not about to take a loss in profits.  They'll make US pay for it.
Such a tax may keep some jobs in the U.S., but American made products always cost more.

The thing is, under our current system, I have no answer to this problem.  Now under a National Socialist system, we could impose a border tax and require companies NOT to raise their prices to cover it.  We could make THEM pay for it rather than us.
Dan 88!

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Hawaii teacher: 'I won't teach' undocumented immigrants

HONOLULU — Mar 10, 2017, 2:45 PM ET

A teacher for Hawaii's largest high school has been harshly criticized for sending an email to staff at his school saying he was refusing to teach immigrant students in the U.S. illegally.
Campbell High School teacher John Sullivan on Wednesday used his work email to reply to a group of messages about parents keeping students out of school due to fears of being deported.
"This is another attack on the President over deportation," Sullivan's email said. "Their parents need to apply for immigration like everyone else. If they are here in the U.S. illegally, I won't teach them."
Officials declined to say whether Sullivan had been disciplined by the school's principal but state Department of Education spokeswoman Donalyn Dela Cruz said Sullivan's message was "disheartening and concerning."
"We want to reiterate that the public school system, we service all students," she said. "In this case, hopefully lessons have been learned."
Sullivan later told KHON-TV that his email was worded poorly. He said he meant to say that he cannot teach students who do not come to class.
President Donald Trump last month directed his administration to more aggressively enforce immigration laws and to accelerate deportations of people in the country illegally.
Campbell Principal Jon Henry Lee emailed faculty and staff hours after Sullivan sent his email, asking them not to use the school's email system to express political opinions.
He also reminded faculty that a code of conduct prohibits teachers from discriminating against student based on their nations of origin.
"If a student is enrolled and registered in our school we will service them to the best of our ability just like all other students," Lee said.

Campbell High School is in Ewa Beach and has 3,125 students.

I wish I had the guts to say that when I was teaching - and to follow through with it.  Talk is cheap.
"If a student is enrolled and registered in our school we will service them to the best of our ability just like all other students," Lee said.  The teaching profession is notoriously liberal, so a teacher like Sullivan is definitely in the minority.
What I'd like to know is how are all these illegals getting to Hawaii in the first place?  I couldn't even afford a week's vacation there let alone moving there permanently.  The cost of living there is even higher than in California because it's an island, so how are they getting there?
Dan 88!

Monday, March 20, 2017

Trump: Healthcare Bill Is 'Coming Along Great'

By Jeffrey Rodack   |   Thursday, 09 Mar 2017 12:28 PM

President Donald Trump reassured Americans on Thursday his administration's healthcare plans are on track and "will end in a beautiful picture."

Trump's comments come after multiple reports say some on the Republican side are voicing concerns about the Obamacare repeal bill presented by the GOP.

According to the Los Angeles Times, the president is expected to personally call "resistant Republicans" in an effort to gain their support. But it noted conservatives have formed an indirect alliance with some moderate Republicans and predict Trump will abandon the legislation once he understands their concerns.


This is what I meant the other day when I said something about Trump trying to keep his promises but others blocking him and that that isn't his fault.  

If this does manage to pass, I hope they remove the part about making health insurance mandatory.  Such a provision only causes premiums to go up.

Most states have mandatory auto insurance laws, but there's a way around that:  Simply stop driving.  If you don't own a car, you don't need insurance.  Therefore, if you're looking for auto insurance and you think the premiums are too high, you can tell the insurance agent you won't pay and take your car off the road.  Realistically, not many of us would do that, but it is a legal option.

But when it comes to mandatory health insurance, you can't refuse.  There's no way around it.  The only legal way to avoid buying health insurance is to die.  I don't think I'd want to go that far.

Since there is no way out of mandatory health insurance, that encourages higher premiums because we can't refuse to buy altogether.  If we redesign the insurance exchanges, put more controls on the insurance companies, and no longer make health insurance mandatory, that would cause premiums to go down, rather than up.

I still prefer the system NS Germany used.  You bought your main insurance from the government (although you could buy supplemental insurance from private companies so you could get things the standard insurance didn't cover like elective surgery and private hospital rooms).  The premiums came out of your income taxes.  However, if you didn't go to the doctor at all or very rarely, you got a full or partial refund at the end of the fiscal year.  It was known as "pay-as-you-go".  It was not very profitable, which is why insurance companies hate the idea.

Let's face it.  There's no such thing as a free lunch.  Everyone must pay their share, but your share shouldn't be so much that it drains you dry.  That's how our system works.  Those at the bottom are drained, those at the top rake it in.

Dan 88!

Sunday, March 19, 2017

That Old Demon Rum

God once complained that the two busiest days for prayer for him are the day after New Year's and the day after St. Patrick's Day.

God said, "Year in and year out it always the same damn prayer:  Oh God just get me through this and I swear I'll never drink again!  But next year they say the same things again.  People never change."


Alcohol!  The cause - and solution - to all of life's problems! - Homer Simpson.


Red Bull and Vodka. Because you want to be wide awake for this mistake.


My girlfriend told me to go out and get something that makes her look sexy... so I got a 12 pack.


Beautiful women on TV make us guys buy beer.  Ugly women at home make us drink beer.


One cigarette shortens your life by two hours, one bottle of vodka by three hours, and a workday – eight hours.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Illegals Crossing Border Drop 40 Percent

Wednesday, 08 Mar 2017 09:49 PM

The number of illegal immigrants crossing into the United States from Mexico declined by 40 percent from January to February, Homeland Security Secretary John Kelly said on Wednesday.
The downturn came after President Donald Trump took office on Jan. 20 vowing to deport many of the estimated 11 million illegal immigrants in the United States.
The flow of illegal border crossings as measured by apprehensions and the prevention of inadmissible persons at the southern border dropped to 18,762 persons in February from 31,578 in January, Kelly said in a statement.
He said the U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency, which compiled the data, historically sees a 10 percent to 20 percent increase in apprehensions of illegal immigrants from January to February.
On Jan. 25, Trump ordered the construction of a wall along the roughly 2,000-mile (3,200-km) U.S.-Mexico border, moved to strip federal funding from "sanctuary" states and cities that harbor illegal immigrants, and expanded the force of U.S. immigration agents.
"Since the administration's implementation of Executive Orders to enforce immigration laws, apprehensions and inadmissible activity is trending toward the lowest monthly total in at least the last five years," Kelly said.

Very good.  This is actually quite unusual to see such positive results so quickly when a new president takes office.  So far, Trump is doing exactly what he promised he'd do.

This is still not an endorsement, merely an "okay, let's keep giving him a chance" kind of thing.  I'll always be at least partially suspicious of the man.  After all, he is a systemite and not one of us (National Socialist).  Maybe I'm still a little on the paranoid side, but we have precedence to be suspicious of all of our leaders.
I also suppose illegal border crossings are down because the illegals are starting to realize that the free pass days are gone and if they are caught, they'll have a record (which makes it easier to catch them if they try again in the future), and they could waste a lot of money coming up here only to be sent straight back - unlike during the Obama administration when they were more likely to be let go.
However, Trump made many campaign promises.  Let's just see how many of them he keeps - or tries to keep.  In fairness, if congress blocks him or the SCOTUS declares what he does to be unconstitutional, that's not his fault.  But again, he's done enough so far to have earned from us the "let's keep giving him a chance" attitude.
Dan 88!  

Friday, March 17, 2017

Happy Saint Patrick's Day!

Dan 88!

Thursday, March 16, 2017

Saint Patrick

From Wikipedia
Saint Patrick (LatinPatriciusProto-Irish*Qatrikias; Modern IrishPádraigWelshPadrig; c. 387 – 17 March c. 460 or c. 492) was a Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of the island along with Saints Brigid and Columba.
Two authentic letters from him survive, from which come the only generally accepted details of his life. When he was about 16, he was captured from his home and taken as a slave to Ireland, where he lived for six years before escaping and returning to his family. After becoming a cleric, he returned to northern and western Ireland as an ordained bishop, but little is known about the places where he worked. By the seventh century, he had already come to be revered as the patron saint of Ireland.
Most available details of his life are from subsequent hagiographies, and these are now not accepted without detailed criticism. The Annals of Ulster state that he arrived in Ireland in 432, ministered in Ulster around 443, and died in 457 or 461. The text, however, distinguishes between "Old Patrick" and "Patrick, archapostle of the Scots," who died in 492. The actual dates of Patrick's life cannot be fixed with certainty but, on a widespread interpretation, he was active as a missionary in Ireland during the second half of the 5th century. He is generally credited with being the first bishop of ArmaghPrimate of All Ireland.
Saint Patrick's Day is observed on March 17, the date of his death. It is celebrated both inside and outside Ireland, as both a liturgical and non-liturgical holiday. In the dioceses of Ireland, it is both a solemnity and a holy day of obligation; outside Ireland, it can be a celebration of Ireland itself.
Most modern scholars of Saint Patrick follow a variant of T. F. O'Rahilly's "Two Patricks" theory. That is to say, many of the traditions later attached to Saint Patrick actually concerned Palladius, who Prosper of Aquitaine's Chronicle says was sent by Pope Celestine I as the first bishop to Irish Christians in 431. Palladius was not the only early cleric in Ireland at this time. The Irish-born Saint Ciaran Saighir the Elder lived in the later fourth century (352–402 AD) and was the first bishop of Ossory. Ciaran the Elder along with SaintsAuxiliusSecundinus and Iserninus are also associated with early churches in Munster and Leinster. By this reading, Palladius was active in Ireland until the 460s.
Prosper associates Palladius' appointment with the visits of Germanus of Auxerre to Britain to suppress the Pelagian heresy and it has been suggested that Palladius and his colleagues were sent to Ireland to ensure that exiled Pelagians did not establish themselves among the Irish Christians. The appointment of Palladius and his fellow-bishops was not obviously a mission to convert the Irish, but more probably intended to minister to existing Christian communities in Ireland. The sites of churches associated with Palladiusand his colleagues are close to royal centres of the period: Secundus is remembered by DunshaughlinCounty Meath, close to the Hill of Tara which is associated with the High King of IrelandKillasheeCounty Kildare, close to Naas with links with the Kings of Leinster, is probably named for Auxilius. This activity was limited to the southern half of Ireland, and there is no evidence for them in Ulster or Connacht.
Although the evidence for contacts with Gaul is clear, the borrowings from Latin into the Old Irish language show that links with Roman Britain were many. Saint Iserninus, who appears to be of the generation of Palladius, is thought to have been a Briton, and is associated with the lands of the Uí Cheinnselaig in Leinster. The Palladian mission should not be contrasted with later "British" missions, but forms a part of them; nor can the work of Palladius be uncritically equated with that of Saint Patrick, as was once traditional.

Saint Patrick's own words

Slemish, County Antrim, where Saint Patrick is said to have worked as a shepherd while a slave.
Two Latin letters survive which are generally accepted to have been written by St. Patrick. These are the Declaration (LatinConfessio) and the Letter to the soldiers of Coroticus (LatinEpistola). The Declaration is the more important of the two. In it Patrick gives a short account of his life and his mission.
St. Patrick was born in Roman Britain at Banna Venta Berniae, a location otherwise unknown, though identified in one tradition as Glannoventa, modern Ravenglass in Cumbria. Calpornius, his father, was a deacon, his grandfather Potitus, a priest. When he was about sixteen, he was captured and carried off as a slave to Ireland. Patrick worked as a herdsman, remaining a captive for six years. He writes that his faith grew in captivity, and that he prayed daily. After six years he heard a voice telling him that he would soon go home, and then that his ship was ready. Fleeing his master, he travelled to a port, two hundred miles away, where he found a ship and, after various adventures, returned home to his family, now in his early twenties.
Patrick recounts that he had a vision a few years after returning home:
I saw a man coming, as it were from Ireland. His name was Victoricus, and he carried many letters, and he gave me one of them. I read the heading: "The Voice of the Irish". As I began the letter, I imagined in that moment that I heard the voice of those very people who were near the wood of Foclut, which is beside the western sea—and they cried out, as with one voice: "We appeal to you, holy servant boy, to come and walk among us."
A. B. E. Hood suggests that the Victoricus of St. Patrick's vision may be identified with Saint Victricius, bishop of Rouen in the late fourth century, who had visited Britain in an official capacity in 396.
Much of the Declaration concerns charges made against St. Patrick by his fellow Christians at a trial. What these charges were, he does not say explicitly, but he writes that he returned the gifts which wealthy women gave him, did not accept payment for baptisms, nor forordaining priests, and indeed paid for many gifts to kings and judges, and paid for the sons of chiefs to accompany him. It is concluded, therefore, that he was accused of some sort of financial impropriety, and perhaps of having obtained his bishopric in Ireland with personal gain in mind.
From this same evidence, something can be seen of St. Patrick's mission. He writes that he "baptised thousands of people". He ordained priests to lead the new Christian communities. He converted wealthy women, some of whom became nuns in the face of family opposition. He also dealt with the sons of kings, converting them too.
St. Patrick's position as a foreigner in Ireland was not an easy one. His refusal to accept gifts from kings placed him outside the normal ties of kinship, fosterage and affinity. Legally he was without protection, and he says that he was on one occasion beaten, robbed of all he had, and put in chains, perhaps awaiting execution.
Murchiú's life of Saint Patrick contains a supposed prophecy by the druids which gives an impression of how Patrick and other Christian missionaries were seen by those hostile to them:
Across the sea will come Adze-head, crazed in the head,
his cloak with hole for the head, his stick bent in the head.
He will chant impieties from a table in the front of his house;
all his people will answer: "so be it, so be it."
The second piece of evidence that comes from Patrick's life is the Letter to Coroticus or Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus, written after a first remonstrance was received with ridicule and insult. In this, St. Patrick writes an open letter announcing that he has excommunicated Coroticus because he had taken some of St. Patrick's converts into slavery while raiding in Ireland. The letter describes the followers of Coroticus as "fellow citizens of the devils" and "associates of the Scots [of Dalriada and later Argyll] and ApostatePicts". Based largely on an eighth century gloss, Coroticus is taken to be King Ceretic of Alt Clut. Thompson however proposed that based on the evidence it is more likely that Coroticus was a British Roman living in Ireland. It has been suggested that it was the sending of this letter which provoked the trial which Patrick mentions in theConfession.


According to the latest reconstruction of the old Irish annals, Patrick died in AD 460 on March 17, a date accepted by some modern historians. Prior to the 1940s it was believed without doubt that he died in 420 and thus had lived in the first half of the fifth century. A lecture entitled "The Two Patricks", published in 1942 by T. F. O'Rahilly, caused enormous controversy by proposing that there had been two "Patricks", Palladius and Patrick, and that what we now know of St. Patrick was in fact in part a conscious effort to blend the two into one hagiographic personality. Decades of contention eventually ended with most historians now asserting that Patrick was indeed most likely to have been active in the latter half of the fifth century.
While Patrick's own writings contain no dates, they do contain information which can be used to date them. Patrick's quotations from the Acts of the Apostles follow the Vulgate, strongly suggesting that his ecclesiastical conversion did not take place before the early fifth century. Patrick also refers to the Franks as being pagans. Their conversion is dated to the period 496–508.
There is plentiful evidence for a medieval tradition that Patrick had died in 493. An addition to the Annals of Ulster states that in the year 553 (approximately two hundred and fifty years before the addition was made):
I have found this in the Book of Cuanu: The relics of Patrick were placed sixty years after his death in a shrine by Colum Cille. Three splendid halidoms were found in the burial-place: his goblet, the Angel's Gospel, and the Bell of the Testament. This is how the angel distributed the halidoms: the goblet to Dún, the Bell of the Testament to Ard Macha, and the Angel's Gospel to Colum Cille himself. The reason it is called the Angel's Gospel is that Colum Cille received it from the hand of the angel.
The reputed burial place of St. Patrick inDownpatrick
The placing of this event in the year 553 indicate a tradition that Patrick's death was 493, or at least in the early years of that decade, and the Annals of Ulster report under 493:
Patrick, arch-apostle, or archbishop and apostle of the Irish, rested on the 16th of the Kalends of April in the 120th year of his age, in the 60th year after he had come to Ireland to baptise the Irish.
This tradition is also seen in an annalistic reference to the death of a saint termed Patrick's disciple, Mochta, who is said to have died in 535.
According to the Annals of the Four Masters, an early-modern compilation of earlier annals, his corpse soon became an object of conflict in the Battle for the Body of St. Patrick.

Seventh-century writings

An early document which is silent concerning Patrick is the letter of Columbanus to Pope Boniface IV of about 613. Columbanus writes that Ireland's Christianity "was first handed to us by you, the successors of the holy apostles", apparently referring to Palladius only, and ignoring Patrick. Writing on the Easter controversy in 632 or 633, Cummian—it is uncertain whether this is the Cummian associated with Clonfert or Cumméne of Iona—does refer to Patrick, calling him our papa, that is pope or primate.
Two works by late seventh-century hagiographers of Patrick have survived. These are the writings of Tírechán, and Vita sancti Patricii of Muirchu moccu Machtheni. Both writers relied upon an earlier work, now lost, the Book of Ultán. This Ultán, probably the same person as Ultan of Ardbraccan, was Tírechán's foster-father. His obituary is given in theAnnals of Ulster under the year 657. These works thus date from a century and a half after Patrick's death.
Tírechán writes
"I found four names for Patrick written in the book of Ultán, bishop of the tribe of Conchobar: holy Magonus (that is, "famous"); Succetus (that is, the god of war);Patricius (that is, father of the citizens); Cothirtiacus (because he served four houses of druids)."
Muirchu records much the same information, adding that "[h]is mother was named Concessa."[56] The name Cothirtiacus, however, is simply the Latinized form of Old IrishCothraige, which is the Q-Celtic form of Latin Patricius.
The Patrick portrayed by Tírechán and Muirchu is a martial figure, who contests with druids, overthrows pagan idols, and curses kings and kingdoms. On occasion, their accounts contradict Patrick's own writings: Tírechán states that Patrick accepted gifts from female converts although Patrick himself flatly denies this. However, the emphasis Tírechán and Muirchu placed on female converts, and in particular royal and noble women who became nuns, is thought to be a genuine insight into Patrick's work of conversion. Patrick also worked with the unfree and the poor, encouraging them to vows of monastic chastity. Tírechán's account suggests that many early Patrician churches were combined with nunneries founded by Patrick's noble female converts.
The martial Patrick found in Tírechán and Muirchu, and in later accounts, echoes similar figures found during the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity. It may be doubted whether such accounts are an accurate representation of Patrick's time, although such violent events may well have occurred as Christians gained in strength and numbers.
Much of the detail supplied by Tírechán and Muirchu, in particular the churches established by Patrick, and the monasteries founded by his converts, may relate to the situation in the seventh century, when the churches which claimed ties to Patrick, and in particular Armagh, were expanding their influence throughout Ireland in competition with the church of Kildare. In the same period, WilfredArchbishop of York, claimed to speak, as metropolitan archbishop, "for all the northern part of Britain and of Ireland" at a council held in Romein the time of Pope Agatho, thus claiming jurisdiction over the Irish church.
Other presumed early materials include the Irish annals, which contain records from the Chronicle of Ireland. These sources have conflated Palladius and Patrick. Another early document is the so-called First Synod of Saint Patrick. This is a seventh-century document, once, but no longer, taken as to contain a 5th century original text. It apparently collects the results of several early synods, and represents an era when pagans were still a major force in Ireland. The introduction attributes it to Patrick, Auxilius, and Iserninus, a claim which "cannot be taken at face value."

Symbols and legends

St. Patrick uses shamrock in an illustrative parable

St. Patrick depicted with shamrock in detail of stained glass window in St. Benin's Church, Wicklow, Ireland
Legend (dating to 1726, according to the OED) credits St. Patrick with teaching the Irish about the doctrine of the Holy Trinity by showing people the shamrock, a three-leafed plant, using it to illustrate the Christian teaching of three persons in one God. For this reason, shamrocks are a central symbol for St Patrick’s Day.
The shamrock had been seen as sacred in the pre-Christian days in Ireland. Due to its green color and overall shape, many viewed it as representing rebirth and eternal life. Three was a sacred number in the pagan religion and there were a number of "Triple Goddesses" in ancient Ireland, including BrigidÉriu, and the Morrigan.

St. Patrick banishes all snakes from Ireland

The absence of snakes in Ireland gave rise to the legend that they had all been banished by St. Patrick.  chasing them into the sea after they attacked him during a 40-day fast he was undertaking on top of a hill. This hagiographic theme draws on the mythography of the staff of the prophet Moses. In Exodus 7:8–7:13 , Moses and Aaron use their staffs in their struggle with Pharaoh's sorcerers, the staffs of each side morphing into snakes. Aaron's snake-staff prevails by consuming the other snakes.
However, all evidence suggests that post-glacial Ireland never had snakes, as on insular "New Zealand, Iceland, Greenland and Antarctica... So far, no serpent has successfully migrated across the open ocean to a new terrestrial home" such as from Scotland at one point only eight miles from Ireland, where a few native species have lived, "the venomous adder, the grass snake, and the smooth snake", as National Geographic notes, and although sea snake species separately exist. "At no time has there ever been any suggestion of snakes in Ireland, so [there was] nothing for St. Patrick to banish", says naturalist Nigel Monaghan, keeper of natural history at the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin, who has searched extensively through Irish fossil collections and records. TheList of reptiles of Ireland has only one land reptile species native to Ireland; the viviparous or common lizard.
The only biological candidate species for appearing like a native snake in Ireland is the slow worm, actually a legless lizard, a non-native species more recently found in The Burren region of County Clare as recorded since the early 1970s, as noted by the National Parks and Wildlife Service of Ireland, which suspects it was deliberately introduced in the 1960s. So far, the slow worm's territory in the wild has not spread beyond the Burren's limestone region which is rich in wildlife.
One suggestion, by fiction author Betty Rhodes, is that "snakes" referred to the serpent symbolism of the Druids during that time and place, as evinced on coins minted in Gaul. Chris Weigant connects "big tattoos of snakes" on Druids' arms as "Irish schoolchildren are taught" with the way in which, in the legend of St. Patrick banishing snakes; the "story goes to the core of Patrick's sainthood and his core mission in Ireland."

St. Patrick's crosses

There are two main types of crosses associated with St. Patrick, the cross pattée and the saltire. The cross pattée is the more traditional association, while the association with the saltire dates from 1783 and the Order of St. Patrick.
Logo of Down District Council showing the cross pattée
The cross pattée has long been associated with St. Patrick, for reasons that are uncertain. One possible reason is that bishops' mitres inEcclesiastical heraldry often appear surmounted by a cross pattée.  An example of this can be seen on the old crest of the Brothers of St. Patrick.  As St. Patrick was the founding bishop of the Irish church, the symbol may have become associated with him. St. Patrick is traditionally portrayed in the vestments of a bishop, and his mitre and garments are often decorated with a cross pattée. 
The cross pattée retains its link to St. Patrick to the present day. For example,it appears on the coat of arms of both the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Armagh and the Church of Ireland Archdiocese of Armagh.  This is on account of St. Patrick being regarded as the first bishop of the Diocese of Armagh. It is also used by Down District Council which has its headquarters in Downpatrick, the reputed burial place at St. Patrick.
Saint Patrick's Saltire is a red saltire on a white field. It is used in the insignia of the Order of Saint Patrick, established in 1783, and after the Acts of Union 1800 it was combined with the Saint George's Cross of England and the Saint Andrew's Cross of Scotland to form the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. A saltire was intermittently used as a symbol of Ireland from the seventeenth century, but without reference to Saint Patrick.
Photograph of eight home-made badges composed of variously coloured crosses and saltires.
Traditional St. Patrick's Day badges from the early 20th century, from the Museum of Country Life, Castlebar.
It was formerly a common custom to wear a cross made of paper or ribbon on St Patrick's Day. Surviving examples of such badges come in many colours and they were worn upright rather than as saltires.
Thomas Dinely, an English traveller in Ireland in 1681, remarked that "the Irish of all stations and condicõns were crosses in their hatts, some of pins, some of green ribbon." Jonathan Swift, writing to "Stella" of Saint Patrick's Day 1713, said "the Mall was so full of crosses that I thought all the world was Irish". In the 1740s, the badges pinned were multicoloured interlaced fabric. In the 1820s, they were only worn by children, with simple multicoloured daisy patterns. In the 1890s, they were almost extinct, and a simple green Greek cross inscribed in a circle of paper (similar to the Ballina crest pictured). The Irish Times in 1935 reported they were still sold in poorer parts of Dublin, but fewer than those of previous years "some in velvet or embroidered silk or poplin, with the gold paper cross entwined with shamrocks and ribbons".

St. Patrick's walking stick grows into a living tree

Some Irish legends involve the Oilliphéist, the Caoránach, and the Copóg Phádraig. During his evangelising journey back to Ireland from his parent's home at Birdoswald, he is understood to have carried with him an ash wood walking stick or staff. He thrust this stick into the ground wherever he was evangelising and at the place now known as Aspatria (ash of Patrick) the message of the dogma took so long to get through to the people there that the stick had taken root by the time he was ready to move on.

St. Patrick speaks with ancient Irish ancestors

The 12th century work Acallam na Senórach tells of Patrick being met by two ancient warriors, Caílte mac Rónáin and Oisín, during his evangelical travels. The two were once members of Fionn mac Cumhaill's warrior band the Fianna, and somehow survived to Patrick's time. In the work St. Patrick seeks to convert the warriors to Christianity, while they defend their pagan past. The heroic pagan lifestyle of the warriors, of fighting and feasting and living close to nature, is contrasted with the more peaceful, but unheroic and non-sensual life offered by Christianity.

Saint Patrick's Bell

The Shrine of St. Patrick's Bell
The National Museum of Ireland in Dublin possesses a bell first mentioned, according to the Annals of Ulster, in the Book of Cuanu in the year 552. The bell was part of a collection of "relics of Patrick" removed from his tomb sixty years after his death by Colum Cille to be used as relics. The bell is described as "The Bell of the Testament", one of three relics of "precious minna" (extremely valuable items), of which the other two are described as Patrick's goblet and "The Angels Gospel". Colum Cille is described to have been under the direction of an "Angel" for whom he sent the goblet to Down, the bell to Armagh, and kept possession of the Angel's Gospel for himself. The name Angels Gospel is given to the book because it was supposed that Colum Cille received it from the angel's hand. A stir was caused in 1044 when two kings, in some dispute over the bell, went on spates of prisoner taking and cattle theft. The annals make one more apparent reference to the bell when chronicling a death, of 1356, "Solomon Ua Mellain, The Keeper of The Bell of the Testament, protector, rested in Christ."
The bell was encased in a "bell shrine", a distinctive Irish type of reliquary made for it, as an inscription records, by King Domnall Ua Lochlainn sometime between 1091 and 1105. The shrine is an important example of the final, Viking-influenced, style of Irish Celtic art, with intricate Urnes style decoration in gold and silver. The Gaelic inscription on the shrine also records the name of the maker "U INMAINEN" (which translates to "Noonan"), "who with his sons enriched/decorated it"; metalwork was often inscribed for remembrance.
The bell itself is simple in design, hammered into shape with a small handle fixed to the top with rivets. Originally forged from iron, it has since been coated in bronze. The shrine is inscribed with three names, including King Domnall Ua Lochlainn's. The rear of the shrine, not intended to be seen, is decorated with crosses while the handle is decorated with, among other work, Celtic designs of birds. The bell is accredited with working a miracle in 1044 and having been coated in bronze to shield it from human eyes, for which it would be too holy. It measures 12.5 × 10 cm at the base, 12.8 × 4 cm at the shoulder, 16.5 cm from base to shoulder, 3.3 cm from shoulder to top of handle and weighs 1.7 kg.

St. Patrick and Irish Identity

St. Patrick features in many stories in the Irish oral tradition and there are many customs connected with his feast day. The folklorist Jenny Butler discusses how these traditions have been given new layers of meaning over time while also becoming tied to Irish identity both in Ireland and abroad. The symbolic resonance of the St. Patrick figure is complex and multifaceted, stretching from that of Christianity’s arrival in Ireland to an identity that encompasses everything Irish. In some portrayals, the saint is symbolically synonymous with the Christian religion itself. There is also evidence of a combination of indigenous religious traditions with that of Christianity, which places St Patrick in the wider framework of cultural hybridity. Popular religious expression has this characteristic feature of merging elements of culture. Later in time, the saint becomes associated specifically with Catholic Ireland and synonymously with Irish national identity. Subsequently, St. Patrick is a patriotic symbol along with the colour green and the shamrock. St. Patrick's Day celebrations include many traditions that are known to be relatively recent historically, but have endured through time because of their association either with religious or national identity. They have persisted in such a way that they have become stalwart traditions, viewed as the strongest "Irish traditions".

Sainthood and modern remembrance

The neo-gothic St Patrick's Cathedral in New York City, as seen from Rockefeller Center.
March 17, popularly known as St. Patrick's Day, is believed to be his death date and is the date celebrated as his feast day. The day became a feast day in the universal church due to the influence of the Waterford-born Franciscan scholar Luke Wadding, as a member of the commission for the reform of the Breviary in the early part of the 17th century.
For most of Christianity's first thousand years, canonisations were done on the diocesan or regional level. Relatively soon after the death of people considered very holy, the local Church affirmed that they could be liturgically celebrated as saints. As a result, St. Patrick has never been formally canonised by a Pope; nevertheless, various Christian churches declare that he is a Saint in Heaven (he is in the List of Saints). He is still widely venerated in Ireland and elsewhere today.
St. Patrick is honored with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) and with a commemoration on the calendar ofEvangelical Lutheran Worship, both on March 17. St. Patrick is also venerated in the Orthodox Church, especially among English-speaking Orthodox Christians living in Ireland, the UK and in the USA. There are Orthodox icons dedicated to him.
St. Patrick is said to be buried at Down Cathedral in DownpatrickCounty Down, alongside St. Brigid and St. Columba, although this has never been proven. Saint Patrick Visitor Centre is a modern exhibition complex located in Downpatrick and is a permanent interpretative exhibition centre featuring interactive displays on the life and story of Saint Patrick. It provides the only permanent exhibition centre in the world devoted to Saint Patrick.

Places associated with Saint Patrick

Slemish, County Antrim
St Patrick's statue at Saul, County Down
St Patrick's Oratory at the top of Croagh Patrick, County Mayo
When captured by raiders, there are two theories as to where Patrick was enslaved. One theory is that he herded sheep in the countryside around Slemish. Another theory is that Patrick herded sheep near Killala Bay, at a place called Fochill.
It is claimed that Patrick founded his first church in a barn at Saul, which was donated to him by a local chieftain called Dichu. It is also claimed that Patrick died at Saul or was brought there between his death and burial. Nearby, on the crest of Slieve Patrick, is a huge statue of Saint Patrick with bronze panels showing scenes from his life.
Muirchu moccu Machtheni, in his highly mythologized 7th century Life of Patrick, says that Patrick lit a Paschal fire on this hilltop in 433 CE in defiance of High King Laoire. The story says that the fire could not be doused by anyone but Patrick, and it was here that he explained the holy trinity using the shamrock.
It is claimed that Patrick climbed this mountain and fasted on its summit for the forty days of Lent. Croagh Patrick draws thousands of pilgrims who make the trek to the top on the last Sunday in July.
It is claimed that Patrick killed a large serpent on this lake and that its blood turned the water red (hence the name). Each August, pilgrims spend three days fasting and praying there on Station Island.
It is claimed that Patrick founded a church here and proclaimed it to be the most holy church in Ireland. Armagh is today the primary seat of both the Catholic and Protestant Churches in Ireland and both cathedrals in the town are named after Patrick.
  • Downpatrick, County Down (from IrishDún Pádraig, meaning "Patrick's stronghold")
It is claimed that Patrick was brought here after his death and buried in the grounds of Down Cathedral.
Other places named after Saint Patrick include: