Thursday, April 30, 2015

Thanks For Your Support!

Well, as white History Month draws to a close, I'd like to thank all of you for visiting, and especially those who took the time to leave a comment.  As most of you realize, I take the time to answer each and every comment specifically, except those left by douche bags, which don't even usually get posted.  Not because I won't publish opposing viewpoints. That would be censorship and I don't believe in that.  However most people who disagree with me can't seem to write their opinion without using obscenities and insults, which are specifically against my rules.  I'll post an opposing view as long as it's done with civility and maturity.  Only morons, the immature, and those with weak arguments can't make comments without resorting to childish insults and obscenities.

April 20th, Hitler's Birthday was also the fifth anniversary of Sense And Sensibility.  To date we have had 202,792 hits.  Not bad for five years.  Also the 20th was a record in visits.  In a 24 hour period, I had 587 hits.  That's impressive, if you ask me.

Anyway, I posted that series on Hitler's life - the true story, not the BS you get from the Jews Media and Jewish written (or published) textbooks, and the one about the Red Baron.  Not to mention the other White History stories that I posted every few days.

I was also contacted by several people who asked for additional information on the ANP.  I think they contacted me first because I am West Coast organizer as well as head of the Political Advisory Board, and they were all from the West Coast.  I directed them to HQ. 

Folks, let me be clear on this. If you are not already a supporter, you need to go through HQ, not me.  I don't get your names until AFTER you sign on.  I myself personally cannot sign up anyone.  Only HQ can do that.  And you need to do that through snail mail.  An info pack is a $5 donation.  Cash and money orders only, please.

For those of you who are already supporters or members, it's time to start getting those pledges in for May.  Let's not delay any longer than you have to.  Thank you.

Also, for those who wonder how you get to be a full member, usually you have to be an Official Supporter in good standing for a year before being invited to become a full member.  
If you're still with us in a year, then you're membership material.  All too often people become OS but are really just "passing through".  They send in a few pledges and then vanish like a ship in the Bermuda Triangle.  We want to make sure you're not going to pull a Jimmy Hoffa on us. In some cases the one year period can be reduced or waived, but only Chairman Suhayda has that authority.

Oh, for you younger folks, Hoffa was president of the Teamsters Union in the seventies and vanished without a trace.  He had Mob (like the Sopranos) connections and is almost certainly dead.  No body was ever found.

Anyway, thanks again and I hope you will continue to visit this blog often.

Dan 88!

Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Spring Valley Purim 'hanging' draws NAACP response

SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK – A Purim display by yeshiva students turned into a lesson in cultural sensitivity after it was interpreted as the depiction of a lynching by members of this diverse village's African-American community.

The controversy was touched off by a Facebook video posted last month showing a black-faced doll dressed in colorful clothing hung out a window at Yeshiva Degel Hatorah on Maple Avenue.

The doll, which was displayed during Purim, was meant to depict the hanging of Haman. According to the biblical Book of Esther, Haman was an advisor to the king in ancient Persia who plotted to kill the Jewish people. His defeat is commemorated during Purim.

The yeshiva's rabbi, Asher Schwab, said hanging up a "Haman" was not an uncommon practice among Jewish children during Purim and wasn't intended to be offensive. "It represented the downfall of someone who wished to destroy them," Schwab wrote in an email Wednesday.

But Wilbur Aldridge of West Haverstraw, regional director of the Mid-Hudson/Westchester NAACP, did indeed take offense.

"The incident I found to be deplorable as far as the content," Aldridge said Wednesday. "However, once talking to them I found it extremely surprising that they had no knowledge of African-American history or lynching."

Schwab said when administrators found out about the display, the students were reprimanded and the doll removed. After learning about the Facebook video, the school contacted village police Chief Paul Modica, who arranged a meeting between the rabbi and NAACP leaders at his office last week.

Despite the doll's ties to the Jewish holiday, "you have to be cognizant of what may be offensive to the surrounding community," Modica said Monday.

During the meeting the rabbi issued an apology to Aldridge and Spring Valley NAACP President Willie Trotman. Schwab said Degal Hatorah will be putting more emphasis on teaching students to be culturally sensitive.

Aldridge said he was "cautiously optimistic" after the meeting and said a followup was planned in May.

Comment:

The first thing I should do in this commentary is explain exactly what Purim is.

To put it simply, Purim is a festival held annually on the 14th of the Hebrew month Adar, because supremacist Jews don’t even use the same calender as we do. In human terms, the holiday usually falls around February or March, with Passover following a month later. During this time of Purim, Jews celebrate the mythical slaughter of 75,000 of their enemies, i.e. genocide. - See more at: http://www.subvertednation.net/purim-blood-lust-genocide/#sthash.SdKFXV4G.dpuf

The prime minister of the then Persian Empire, a man named Haman decreed that all Jews in the Empire were to leave by the 14th of Adar or face execution.  The date was chosen by lottery.

It turns out that the king's new wife, Esther was secretly a Jew.  She set things up very slyly so that it was the Jews who slaughtered everyone in Baghdad, rather than the other way around.  They even killed the Persian children - including infants.

They literally celebrated their victory by drinking the blood of their victims.  Such practices were common in those days - and in fairness it was not only Jews who did this. Amalachites, Hittites, Sumerians, and Babylonians (all Semitic Races) indulged in this horrible practice as well.

The Jews celebrate the mass murder of their enemies, on the pretext that these enemies of the Jews are just evil people, who deserved to be viciously murdered in cold blood, but that couldn’t be farther from the truth. Historically, the enemies of the Jews have been ALL of your ancestors, for those of you who are non-Jewish. Historically, the enemy of the Jew has been the hard working, ethical, human beings with a conscience, which makes us completely alien to Jews.

For Jews, conscience and compassion do not exist. They are merely traits of ours that they mimic so that they might manipulate us. In fact, almost all of the behavior of Jews today is a mimicry of our own behavior. Behind closed doors, or out of sight of non-Jewish “Goyim” (cattle) as they call us, it is a whole different story.

Look at the story of Purim as Chabad Jews (some of the most vile Jews) describe it here:
- See more at: http://www.subvertednation.net/purim-blood-lust-genocide/#sthash.SdKFXV4G.dpuf

Dan 88!

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Americans Fleeing High-Tax States

Newsmax
New York State suffered a net loss of 1.5 million people between 2004 and 2013. It is likely not a coincidence that the state’s top marginal personal income tax rate is the second-highest in the nation.
California has the highest top tax rate, 13.3 percent, ahead of New York's 12.7 percent. The Golden State also lost significant population in that time period, with 1.4 million people departing.  [They can add my name to that list in due time. - Dan]
On the other hand, states with low taxes have been gaining population, according to the eighth edition of the "Rich States, Poor States" report released by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) on Wednesday.
Texas saw the largest population gain between 2004 and 2013, 1.2 million. The Lone Star State has no personal income tax.
Florida gained 960,000 during that period. The Sunshine State also has no personal income tax.
Other states with significant population gains include North Carolina (655,600) and Arizona (584,100), while states losing population include Illinois (-646,800) and Michigan (-628,400).
The ALEC-Laffer State Economic Competitiveness Index also ranks states on their economic performance from 2003 to 2013, and their economic outlook in 2015.
The economic outlook rankings are based on 15 factors, including income tax, property tax burden, sales taxes, public employees per 10,000 residents, the state minimum wage, and whether a state is a right to work state.
Utah placed first in economic outlook, due in part to its low marginal corporate income tax rate and lack of an estate tax. Utah is a right to work state.
North Dakota was ranked second, followed by Indiana, North Carolina, and Arizona.
New York was 50th due mostly to its high personal and corporate tax rates, plus a high property tax burden and high sales taxes.
Other states in the bottom five, in ascending order, are Vermont, Minnesota, Connecticut, and New Jersey.
As for the economic performance rating over the 10-year period, which is based on a state's GDP, migration, and non-farm payrolls, Texas finished in the top position. Its GDP grew by 81.7 percent during that period, and non-farm payrolls grew by 20.5 percent.
North Dakota was second, followed by Utah, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.
Michigan was last at No. 50, after seeing a 6.4 percent decrease in non-farm payrolls.
Others in the bottom five are Ohio, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Illinois.
The ALEC report was written by former Reagan economist Arthur B. Laffer, Heritage Foundation economist Stephen Moore, and Jonathan Williams, vice president of the Center for State Fiscal Reform at ALEC.
Comment:
Taxes are a necessary evil if we expect to get the public services we enjoy.  Nothing is free.  However, overtaxing does a lot of harm.  Many individuals can't afford such taxes, and may move to a state where the taxes are cheaper.  Businesses as well. That is bad for the entire state.   Indeed many businesses and individuals are actually renouncing their citizenship to escape the high taxes.
What we need is a uniform tax that is fair to all like National Socialist Germany had. Considering their enormous wartime budget, if they had been victorious in 1945, they would have owed a mere 54 billion dollars.  It is true that due to inflation things were cheaper then, but adjusting for inflation, that amount is equal to approximately 600 billion dollars today.  Today, we spend over a billion dollars in just a few days.  In other words, the United States spent three times what NS Germany spent for WW II.  
Our greater spending during the war was not why we won.  We all know how well Germany was armed.  They were able to arm themselves just as well for a fraction of the cost because everyone was pulling together for the good of Germany, unlike the United States where government contractors were sticking it to us for every cent they could get.
This country is rapidly becoming a Third World Nation.  Part of the reason for this is out-of-control taxation of the working and middle classes, and allowing the wealthy to wriggle out of them with loopholes and shelters.  Financially speaking, the Unites States is a poorly run business.
Dan 88! 

Monday, April 27, 2015

White History: 4000-year-old Aryan city discovered in Russia

World | Press Trust of India | Updated: October 04, 2010 18:32 IST


LONDON:  Russian archaeologists have unearthed some ancient and virtually unknown settlements which they believe were built by the original Aryan race about 4000 years ago.


According to the team which has discovered 20 of the spiral-shaped settlements in remote part of Russia steppe in southern Siberia bordering Kazakhstan, the buildings date back to the beginning of Western civilisation in Europe.



The Bronze-age settlements, the experts said, could have been built shortly after the Great Pyramid some 4000 years ago by the original Aryan race whose swastika symbol was later adopted by the Nazis in the 1930s.



TV historian Bettany Hughes, who explored the desolate part of the Russian steppe for BBC programme 'Tracking The Aryans', said: "Potentially, this could rival ancient Greece in the age of the heroes."



"Because I have written a lot about the Bronze Age world, there always seemed to be this huge missing piece of the jigsaw puzzle," Hughes was quoted as saying by the Daily Mail.



She said: "We are all told that there is this kind of mother tongue, proto-Indo-European, from which all the languages we know emerge. 



"I was very excited to hear on the archaeological grapevine that in exactly the period I am an expert in, this whole new Bronze Age civilisation had been discovered on the steppe of southern Siberia."



The remains of the ancient city were explored for the first time around 20 years ago shortly after then Soviet officials relaxed strict laws banning non-military aerial photography.



But because of the region is so remote the incredible cities have remained virtually unknown to the rest of Europe until now, according to the archaeologists.



They are about the same size as several of the city states of ancient Greece and would have housed between 1,000 and 2,000 people, they said.



Hughes was driven to the vast region by the expedition's chief archaeologist Professor Gennady Zdanovich who pointed to the cities that were buried in the ground beneath them.



The Aryan's language has been identified as the precursor to a number of modern European tongues. English uses many similar words such as brother, oxen and guest which have all been tracked to the Aryans. 



Items that have so far been dug up at the sites include make-up equipment, a chariot and numerous pieces of pottery.



The artifacts were daubed in swastikas which were used in ancient times as symbols of the sun and eternal life.



Evidence of ritual horse burials were found at the site which ties in with ancient Aryan texts that describe the animals being sliced up and buried with their masters.



Hughes, a visiting research fellow at King's College London, said that "ancient Indian texts and hymns describe sacrifices of horses and burials and the way the meat is cut off and the way the horse is buried with its master".



"If you match this with the way the skeletons and graves are being dug up in Russia, they are a millimetre-perfect match." 

Comment:

It seems our civilization goes back a lot further than we thought and we rivaled the Ancient Egyptians and Ancient Greeks.  It really isn't that surprising.  The Aryan people have always been capable of great things.  

While most of the world was living in caves or huts, our ancestors and a few other peoples (The Egyptians, Aztecs, Mayans, Greeks, Romans, and Chinese) were building great cities.

A little food for thought.  Historical evidence indicates that in the latter years of these peoples, they gave in to race mixing - except the Chinese.  The Chinese civilization is still here.  The rest are gone.  When you look at today's world, it gives you chills.  Race mixing = destruction.

Dan 88!

Sunday, April 26, 2015

Some Thoughts For The Week

Always remember you're unique. Just like everyone else.     

Never test the depth of the water with both feet.  
 
If you think nobody cares whether you're alive or dead, try 
missing a couple of mortgage payments.
   
Before you criticize someone, you should walk a mile in 
their shoes. That way, when you criticize them, you're a 
mile away and you have their shoes. 
  
If at first you don't succeed, skydiving is not for you. 
  
Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach him how 
to fish, and he will sit in a boat and drink beer all day.
   
If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again, 
it was probably well worth it.   

If you tell the truth, you don't have to remember anything.
   
Some days you are the dog, some days you are the tree.   

Good judgment comes from bad experience ... and most of 
that comes from bad judgment.
   
A closed mouth gathers no foot.
  
There are two excellent theories for arguing with women. 
Neither one works.  

Generally speaking, you aren't learning much when your lips are moving.   

Dan 88!

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Activists protest Rep. Aguilar over immigration stance

By Sandra Emerson, Redlands Daily Facts Posted: 04/09/15, 7:32 PM PDT 


REDLANDS, CA
A local group of activists “pink slipped” Rep. Pete Aguilar outside the San Bernardino County Medical Society here on Thursday.

The Claremont-based political action group We The People Rising protested outside the building, where Aguilar, D-Rancho Cucamonga, had planned to speak with members of the San Bernardino County Medical Society Political Action Committee and the Legislative Committee.

“We’re very disappointed in the fact that he is a staunch supporter of the Obama immigration plan,” said Robin Hvidston, executive director of We The People Rising. “We’re very disappointed that he is not standing with the lawful American citizens.”
The group protested Aguilar’s support of President Barack Obama’s executive orders aimed at expanding Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, or DACA, and create Deferred Action for Parents of Americans, or DAPA, a new program for parents of American-born children. Aguilar was one of 180 members of Congress to sign an amicus brief in support of the orders.

The We The People Rising “pink slip” represents the group’s firing of Aguilar and call on voters not to re-elect him in 2016.

Aguilar, the former mayor of Redlands, on Tuesday met with Ernesto and Dina Gudino of Redlands, who have lived in the country without documentation for 18 years and have three American-born children. They are eligible for Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents under Obama’s executive orders.
Aguilar met with the family as part of the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles’ campaign in which California Democratic congressional representatives meet with families with mixed immigration statuses at their homes to discuss immigration policy.
 “The Senate passed a bipartisan bill nearly two years ago, which the House leadership has refused to bring to the floor,” Aguilar said in an emailed statement. “This is about showing compassion and keeping families together, and also bringing hard-working men and women like Ernesto and Dina into the fold of the Inland Empire’s economy. While I realize a difficult road lies ahead, I’m confident that Democrats and Republicans will be able to work together to finally see this through.”
Hvidston said the group would rather see Aguilar meeting with American citizens in need of assistance.
“We’re highly disappointed to learn that he went to great lengths to hold a public event where he is meeting with people in our country illegally,” Hvidston said. “That promotes federal law breaking to have our Congress members engaging in that type of photo-op.”
The group also protested the meet-and-greet itself for not being open to the public.
Comment:
The reason I posted this is to show that there ARE people who are willing to get off their asses and DO something.  If we could get people to consistently turn out for such events then maybe we could stage a few of our own.  But we're not going to do as the NSM and stage a protest and have 20 people show up and 200 to protest against us.  It makes us look like a bunch of damn fools.
If we want to have even a chance to win we've got to drop the negativity and defeatist attitudes like, "It won't do any good."  Or, "I don't have the time."  Negative and defeatist.
Hitler didn't have that kind of an attitude.  If he did, he never would have gotten out of that first beer hall where they had their first meetings.
When we put out feelers to see if our supporters would attend such an event the response is less than enthusiastic.  WAY less.  Donations and literature are only a part of activism. We've got to be willing to do whatever it takes to win - within the law of course.  If we don't, then our Folk are finished.
There are now seven states where we are the minority:  California, Texas, Arizona, Hawaii, New Mexico, Nevada, and Florida too if you include Jews.  Also, the District Of Columbia is non-White majority too.  There are several more states who will be non-White by the next census:  Among them are Oklahoma, Utah, and New York (again if you include Jews).
They are closing in on us.  Soon it will be too late.  What the hell are you waiting for?  Let's start doing something about it.  The first thing you should do is become an official supporter if you aren't already.  If you are, then contact us and tell us you're ready to get involved and we'll help you get started.  But the first move is up to YOU.  No one is going to do it for you.
Dan 88!

Friday, April 24, 2015

ISIS Set Up Camp 8 Miles From Texas Border

Tuesday, 14 Apr 2015 02:14 PM
By Joel Himelfarb


The Islamic State (ISIS) is operating a camp in northern Mexico just a few miles from El Paso, Texas, Judicial Watch said Tuesday, citing sources that include a Mexican Army field grade officer and a Mexican Federal Police inspector. 


Judicial Watch sources said that "coyotes" working for the notorious Juarez Cartel are involved in helping to "move ISIS terrorists through the desert and across the border between Santa Teresa and Sunland  Park, New Mexico."

Moreover, east of El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, cartel-backed coyotes are smuggling members of the jihadi terrorist group "through the porous border between Acala and Fort Hancock, Texas," Judicial Watch reported.

The group says that these locations were targeted for exploitation by ISIS "because of their understaffed municipal and county police forces, and the relative safe-havens the areas provide for the unchecked large-scale drug smuggling that was already ongoing."

The watchdog group's sources say the precise location where ISIS has established the base is approximately eight miles from the U.S. border in an area known as "Anapra," located just west of Ciudad Juárez in the Mexican state of Chihuahua.


Another ISIS cell is said to be located in Puerto Palomas, located to the west of Ciudad Juárez. That cell "targets the New Mexico towns of Columbus and Deming for easy access to the United States," Judicial Watch's Mexican sources say.

During the course of a joint operation last week, Mexican Army and federal law enforcement officials discovered documents in Arabic and Urdu, as well as "plans" of Fort Bliss — the sprawling military installation that houses the U.S. Army's 1st Armored Division. 

"Muslim prayer rugs were recovered with the documents during the operation," Judicial Watch said.


Comment:

Oh no, terrorists would never try and sneak into the country via Mexico.  That's just an excuse to be racist towards Mexicans.  Well you idiot liberals, we were right all along!  

If we were right about this, what about all the other things you say we're wrong about?  For you people who are undecided, doesn't it make you wonder?

What the left is telling you is that since National Socialism is bad, then everything we say and do must be bad/wrong too.  Well this proves that line of thought to be grossly incorrect.  

After all ISIS wasn't on vacation.  They were there to sneak operatives across the border, probably disguised as illegal Mexican immigrants.  They probably figured that us stupid Americans couldn't tell the difference between a Latino and an Middle Easterner, as long as the latter was dressed as a Latino.  Unfortunately with many people that was probably a correct assessment.

People, this illegal immigrant thing is not a matter of a bunch of racist crackers trying to deny impoverished immigrants a better life.  Aside from our concerns about what a flood of sincere immigrants will do to the job market, it's a matter of keeping fanatics like ISIS from getting large numbers of operatives across the border.

You liberals have got to stop believing that everyone is basically good at heart.  There are a lot of nuts out there and we have to take steps to protect ourselves and that means prevention as well as actual defense.

If you disagree about what I said in the previous paragraph then from now on don't take your keys, lock your car, and turn on your alarm.  Don't lock your house whenever you're not home.  Don't walk your kids to school or drive them to keep them safe.  If people are basically good at heart then your kids, house, and car will be perfectly safe. Your car won't get stolen, your house won't get burglarized, and you're kids won't get molested or killed.

Okay, maybe there are many that are good at heart.  But just as you have to protect your car, house, and kids from the few that aren't, we have to do the same with our borders.  If just one terrorist cell gets through, how many people could they kill?  Are you really willing to risk another 9/11?  If you think it couldn't happen again, then you really are hopeless.

Dan 88!

Thursday, April 23, 2015

National Socialist Movement holds rally in Toledo

by Jim Nelson

Photo

As many as 200 members of the community gathered downtown Toledo in protest of the National Socialist Movement rally held on the steps of One Government Center on Saturday.
There was shouting, there was emotion but there was no violence.
"The courage it takes to come here and even witness this...and at the same time, the control and power it shows to restrain yourself," said Raymond Johnson of Toledo.
"I wanted to show (my family) up close and personal what I feel true ignorance is," said Kimberly Boos.
While many shouted obscenities toward the NSM members, some took a much different approach. Deonte Moss brought a sign that read 'you hate me, I (love) you).'
"(The NSM members) just need to be told - somebody needs to let them know - that they're loved too," Moss said. "I think that's the message I want to promote today."
A common argument against the NSM is its use of the swastika. NBC 24's Hubert Wiggins asked NSM commander Jeff Schoep about that before the rally.
"I'm not going to entertain that. I'm not here to revise history. I don't believe in the holocaust myth and it's not something I'm here to discuss today. It has nothing to do with the National Socialist Movement today. What might have happened - what they claim happened - in the 1940's has nothing to do with us here today," Schoep said.
"We're no about even listening to this type of rhetoric," said Toledo Police Chief George Kral of the NSM.
He added that his officers, along with the Ohio State Highway Patrol and Lucas County Sheriff's Department were well prepared for the event, which wrapped up without major incident.
During the rally, one of the barricades broke open for a short time, though nobody attempted to cross it. At least one person was escorted out of the enclosed area after throwing something toward the rally. He was not arrested.
After the event, crowd dispersal took some maneuvering. One person was taken away in handcuffs. Police were eventually able to move the crowds after a short demonstration in the streets.
There were no immediate reports of violence, injuries or property damage.
The City of Toledo estimates that it will spend $100,000 in police overtime.
Comment:
Well since I posted a few days ago that the NSM was having this rally, I'd thought I'd post about it afterwards - especially since it did not make national news, just local.  At least there was nothing about it here in Mexifornia.
The above photo was the only one printed with the article - and the NSM wasn't even in it!  It was just the police - all dressed up in their urban combat gear - to protect about two dozen NSMers from potentially violent liberals.
There was a short two minutes video which I was not able to embed.  If you want to see it, go to http://www.nbc24.com/uploadedImages/wnwo/News/Images/0022E6.new.01.jpg?w=440&h=330&aspect=nostretch
This was just another pathetic publicity stunt by a pathetic bunch of extremists.  In all fairness I would have to say that the NSM did behave themselves which was probably why there was no violence as in many of their other rallies.
Dan 88!

Wednesday, April 22, 2015

White History: Adolf Hitler - The War Years

The enemies of National Socialism would have us believe that Hitler wanted to conquer the world - or at least all of Europe.  This is simply not true.  Hitler wanted peace more than most world leaders. However his desire for peace did not deter him from righting wrongs committed against Germany.

According to the terms of the Treaty Of Versailles signed after World War I, Germany had to cede the state of Danzig to Poland, the Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia, and the Rhineland to France.  In addition, Germany was to assume full financial blame for the cost of the war.

The financial cost was easy to fix.  He just refused to make the annual payments.  When he was told he was he was breaking the Treaty, he more or less said, "No, I'm not.  I didn't sign it."

RETAKING OF STOLEN TERRITORIES

When he said he was willing to retake stolen lands by force, he was called a thief.  When a thief takes what is yours, you are not a thief for taking it back.

He tried negotiating with Poland, Czechoslovakia, and France to no avail.  Evidently they were either convinced that Germany was still the beaten nation it was after WW I, or that Hitler was bluffing.  It was neither.

In February of 1938, Hitler's foreign minister, Joachim (Yo-WOK-im) Von Ribbentrop (pictured on the left) arranged for an alliance with the Japanese Empire.  Japan was the most powerful nation in the Far East.  Japanese Foreign Minister Yosuke Matsuoka pictured on the right.

A month later he reunited Germany and Austria in the Anschluss.  When German troops enter Austria, for the most part the Austrians cheered and celebrated.  Naturally there would have been a few malcontents.  There always are.  Crowds cheering Hitler in Austria below left.

Next up was the retaking of the Sudetenland.  On March 15, 1939 Germany retook the Sudetenland. As this area was populated mostly by ethnic Germans, again the troops were greeted by cheers.  To the ethnic Germans, this was a liberation, not an invasion.  When the Sudetenland was secure, troops stopped their advance.  Reluctantly the Czech government let it go.

In September, 1939, Hitler retook Danzig.  The Polish government was not going to let it go. They fought back hard, but to no avail.  Hitler tried to negotiate with the Polish government. He'd call off the invasion if Germany could keep Danzig, which was German by right. Poland refused.  Hitler had no choice but to take the entire country.   

The outright invasion caused England to declare war on Germany.  France, fearing Germany would retake the Rhineland, also declared war.  At the urging of Hitler, Mussolini also declared war on Great Britain and France.  World War II had begun.  Strangely to many, the Soviet Union had done nothing - yet.

THE TRIPARTITE PACT

The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between GermanyItaly and Japan signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940 by, respectively, Adolf HitlerGaleazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu. It was a defensive military alliance that was eventually joined by Hungary (November 20, 1940), Romania (November 23, 1940), Bulgaria (March 1, 1941) and Yugoslavia (March 25, 1941), as well as by the German client state of Slovakia (November 24, 1940). Yugoslavia's adherence provoked a coup d'état in Belgrade, and Italy and Germany responded by invading Yugoslavia (with Bulgarian, Hungarian and Romanian assistance) and partitioning the country. The resulting Italo-German client state of Croatia joined the pact on June 15, 1941.

THE UNITED STATES ENTERS THE WAR

It is now believed that the United States deliberately provoked the Japanese into attacking so we would have an excuse to declare war, which would require Germany to do likewise.  It wasn't Japan the Unites States wanted war with, it was Germany because of Judeo-Capitalist fear of National Socialism. The people of the United States wanted no part of the war.  Roosevelt tricked the Japanese into providing an incident to rile the population.  It obviously worked.

OPERATION BARBAROSSA

Germany had signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union.  In June of 1941 the pact expired.  Hitler, hating to have had to make any pacts with a communist country delayed signing the renewal so he could prepare Operation Barbarossa.  This was the invasion of the Soviet Union.  Technically there was no non-aggression pact at that time.  However, the invasion of Russia was a disaster and with the entry of the United States into the war, meant the ultimate defeat of the Third Reich.

TEMPORARY DEFEAT FOR NATIONAL SOCIALISM

Hitler died at his post in the Reichs Chancellery on April 30, 1945, just ten days after  his 56th birthday.

Dan 88!

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

In Memorium Of Another Great Man




                                                            May 2, 1892 - April 21, 1918
                                                      He was shot down 97 years ago today.
                                                       

Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen(2 May 1892 – 21 April 1918), also widely known as the Red Baron, was a German fighter pilot with the Imperial German Army Air Service (Luftstreitkräfte) during World War I. He is considered the top ace of that war, being officially credited with 80 air combat victories, more than any other pilot.
Originally a cavalryman, Richthofen transferred to the Air Service in 1915, becoming one of the first members of Jasta 2 in 1916. He quickly distinguished himself as a fighter pilot, and during 1917 became leader of Jasta 11 and then the larger unit Jagdgeschwader 1 (better known as the "Flying Circus"). By 1918, he was regarded as a national hero in Germany, and was very well known by the other side.
Richthofen was shot down and killed near Amiens on 21 April 1918. There has been considerable discussion and debate regarding aspects of his career, especially the circumstances of his death. He remains quite possibly the most widely-known fighter pilot of all time, and has been the subject of many books and films.
Richthofen was a Freiherr (literally "Free Lord"), a title of nobility often translated as Baron. This is not a given name nor strictly a hereditary title—since all male members of the family were entitled to it, even during the lifetime of their father. This title, combined with the fact that he had his aircraft painted red, led to Richthofen being called "The Red Baron" ( "der Rote Baron" ) both inside and outside Germany. During his lifetime, however, he was more often described in German as Der Rote Kampfflieger (variously translated as The Red Battle Flyer or The Red Fighter Pilot). This name was used as the title of Richthofen's 1917 autobiography.
Richthofen's other nicknames include "Le Diable Rouge" ("Red Devil") or "Le petit Rouge" ("Little Red") in French, and the "Red Knight" in English.
Von Richthofen was born in Kleinburg, near Breslau, Lower Silesia (now part of the city of Wrocław, Poland), into a prominent Prussian aristocratic family. His father was Major Albrecht Phillip Karl Julius Freiherr von Richthofen and his mother was Kunigunde von Schickfuss und Neudorff. He had an elder sister (Ilse) and two younger brothers.
When he was four years old, Manfred moved with his family to nearby Schweidnitz (now Świdnica). He enjoyed riding horses and hunting as well as gymnastics at school. He excelled at parallel bars and won a number of awards at school. He and his brothers, Lothar and Bolko, hunted wild boar, elk, birds, and deer.
After being educated at home he attended a school at Schweidnitz, before beginning military training when he was 11. After completing cadet training in 1911, he joined an Uhlan cavalry unit, the Ulanen-Regiment Kaiser Alexander der III. von Russland (1. Westpreußisches) Nr. 1 ("1st Uhlan Regiment 'Emperor Alexander III of Russia (1st West Prussia Regiment)' "), and was assigned to the regiment's 3. Eskadron ("Number 3 Squadron").
When World War I began, Richthofen served as a cavalry reconnaissance officer on both the Easternand Western Fronts, seeing action in Russia, France, and Belgium. Traditional cavalry operations soon became impossible due to machine guns and barbed wire, and the Uhlans were used as infantry. Disappointed at not being able to participate more often in combat, Richthofen applied for a transfer to Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Army Air Service), later to be known as the Luftstreitkräfte, shortly after viewing a German military aircraft while deployed behind the lines. To his own surprise, his request was granted,[10] and he joined the flying service at the end of May 1915.
From June to August 1915, Richthofen was an observer on reconnaissance missions over the Eastern Front withFliegerabteilung 69 ("No. 69 Flying Squadron"). On being transferred to the Champagne front, he managed to shoot down an attacking French Farman aircraft with his observer's machine gun in a tense battle over French lines; however, he was not credited with the kill, since it fell behind Allied lines and therefore, could not be confirmed.
After a chance meeting of the German ace fighter pilot Oswald Boelcke, Richthofen entered training as a pilot in October 1915. In March 1916, he joined Kampfgeschwader 2 ("No. 2 Bomber Geschwader") flying a two-seater Albatros C.III. Initially he appeared to be a below average pilot, struggling to control his aircraft, and crashing during his first flight at the controls.  Despite this poor start, he rapidly became attuned to his aircraft and, as if in confirmation, over Verdun on 26 April 1916, he fired on a French Nieuport, downing it overFort Douaumont, although once again, he received no official credit. A week later, he decided to ignore more experienced pilots' advice against flying through a thunderstorm, and later noted that he had been "lucky to get through [the weather]", and vowed never again to fly in such conditions unless ordered to do so.
After another spell flying two-seaters on the Eastern Front, he met Oswald Boelcke again in August 1916. Boelcke, visiting the east in search of candidates for his newly formed fighter unit, selected Richthofen to join Jagdstaffel 2 ("fighter squadron"). Richthofen won his first aerial combat withJasta 2 over Cambrai, France, on 17 September 1916. Boelcke was killed during a midair collision with a friendly aircraft on 28 October 1916, Richthofen witnessing the event himself.
A replica of Manfred von Richthofen's red Fokker Dr.I triplane.
Major Lanoe Hawker VC
After his first confirmed victory, Richthofen ordered a silver cup engraved with the date and the type of enemy machine from a jeweller in Berlin. He continued this until he had 60 cups, by which time the dwindling supply of silver in blockaded Germany meant that silver cups like this could no longer be supplied. Richthofen discontinued his orders at this stage, rather than accept cups made in pewter or other base metal.
Instead of using risky, aggressive tactics like those of his brother,Lothar (40 victories), Manfred observed a set of maxims (known as the "Dicta Boelcke") to assure the success for both the squadron and its pilots. He was not a spectacular or aerobatic pilot, like his brother or the renowned Werner Voss. However, he was a notable tactician and squadron leader and a fine marksman. Typically, he would dive from above to attack with the advantage of the sun behind him, and with other Jasta pilots covering his rear and flanks.
On 23 November 1916, Richthofen downed his most famous adversary, British ace Major Lanoe Hawker VC, described by Richthofen himself as "the British Boelcke". The victory came while Richthofen was flying an Albatros D.II and Hawker was flying a D.H.2. After a long dogfight, Hawker was killed by a bullet in the head as he attempted to escape back to his own lines.  After this combat, Richthofen was convinced he needed a fighter aircraft with more agility, even at a loss of speed. He switched to the Albatros D.III in January 1917, scoring two victories before suffering an inflight crack in the spar of the aircraft's lower wing on 24 January. Richthofen reverted to the Albatros D.II or Halberstadt D.II for the next five weeks. On 6 March, his aircraft was shot through the petrol tank by Edwin Benbow, and Richthofen force landed without injury. Richthofen then scored a victory in the Albatros D.II on 9 March, but since his Albatros D.III was grounded for the rest of the month, Richthofen switched again to a Halberstadt D.II.
He returned to his Albatros D.III on 2 April 1917 and scored 22 victories in it before switching to the Albatros D.V in late June. From late July, following his discharge from hospital, Richthofen flew the celebrated Fokker Dr.I triplane, the distinctive three-winged aircraft with which he is most commonly associated, although he did not use the type exclusively until after it was reissued with strengthened wings in November. Despite the popular link between Richthofen and the Fokker Dr. I, only 19 of his 80 kills were made in this type. It was his Albatros D.III Serial No. 789/16 that was first painted bright red, in late January 1917, and in which he first earned his name and reputation.
Richthofen championed the development of the Fokker D.VII with suggestions to overcome the deficiencies of the then current German fighter aircraft.[26] However, he never had an opportunity to fly it in combat as he was killed just days before it entered service.

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Flying Circus                                                                                                      

Manfred von Richthofen with other members of Jasta 11
In January 1917, after his 16th confirmed kill, Richthofen received the Pour le Mérite ("The Blue Max"), the highest military honour in Germany at the time. That same month, he assumed command of the fighter squadron Jasta 11, which ultimately included some of the elite German pilots, many of whom he trained himself. Several later became leaders of their own squadrons. Ernst Udet (later Colonel-General Udet) was a member of Richthofen's group.
At the time he became a squadron commander, Richthofen took the flamboyant step of having his Albatros painted red. Thereafter he usually flew in red painted aircraft, although not all of them were entirely red, nor was the "red" necessarily the brilliant scarlet beloved of model and replica builders.
Other members of Jasta 11 soon took to painting parts of their aircraft red—their "official" reason seems to have been to make their leader less conspicuous, and to avoid him being singled out in a fight. In practice, red colouration became a unit identification. Other jastas soon adopted their own "squadron colours" and decoration of fighters became general throughout the Luftstreitkräfte. In spite of obvious drawbacks from the point of view of intelligence this practice was permitted by the German high command, and was made much of by German propaganda—Richthofen being identified as Der Rote Kampfflieger—the "Red Battle Flyer".
Von Richthofen (centre) with Hermann Thomsen (German Air Service Chief of Staff, shown on the left) and Ernst von Hoeppner (Commanding General of the Air Service, shown on the right) at the Imperial Headquarters at Bad Kreuznach.
Richthofen led his new unit to unparalleled success, peaking during "Bloody April" 1917. In that month alone, he downed 22 British aircraft, including four in a single day,raising his official tally to 52. By June he was the commander of the first of the new larger Jagdgeschwader(wing) formations, leading Jagdgeschwader 1, composed of Jastas 4, 6, 10 and 11. These were highly mobile, combined tactical units that could be sent at short notice to different parts of the front as required. In this way, JG1 became "The Flying Circus", its name coming both from the unit's mobility (including the use of tents and trains) and its brightly coloured aircraft. By the end of April, the "Flying Circus" also became known as the "Richthofen Circus."
Richthofen was a brilliant tactician, building on Boelcke's tactics. Unlike Boelcke, he led by example and force of will rather than by inspiration. He was often described as distant, unemotional, and rather humourless, though some colleagues contended otherwise.He circulated to his pilots the basic rule which he wanted them to fight by: "Aim for the man and don't miss him. If you are fighting a two-seater, get the observer first; until you have silenced the gun, don't bother about the pilot".
Although he was now performing the duties of a lieutenant colonel (in modern RAF terms, a wing commander), he remained a captain. The system in the British army would have been for him to have held the rank appropriate to his level of command (if only on a temporary basis) even if he had not been formally promoted. In the German army, it was not unusual for a wartime officer to hold a lower rank than his duties implied, German officers being promoted according to a schedule and not by battlefield promotion. For instance, Erwin Rommel commanded an infantry battalion as a captain in 1917 and 1918. It was also not the custom for a son to hold a higher rank than his father, and Richthofen's father was a reserve major.

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Wounded in combat

Richthofen's Albatros D.V after forced landing near Wervicq
On 6 July 1917, during combat with a formation of F.E.2d two seat fighters of No. 20 Squadron RFC, near Wervicq, Richthofen sustained a serious head wound, causing instant disorientation and temporary partial blindness.  He regained consciousness in time to ease the aircraft out of a free-falling spin and executed a rough landing in a field within friendly territory. The injury required multiple surgeries to remove bone splinters from the impact area.The air victory was credited to Captain Donald Cunnell of No. 20, who was killed a few days later. The Red Baron returned to active service (against doctor's orders) on 25 July,[32] but went on convalescent leave from 5 September to 23 October. His wound is thought to have caused lasting damage, as he later often suffered from post-flight nausea and headaches, as well as a change in temperament. There is even a theory linking this injury with his eventual death.
Portrait from contemporary German postcard

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Author and hero

During his convalescent leave, Richthofen completed his autobiography, Der rote Kampfflieger. This was written on the instructions of the "Press and Intelligence" (i.e. propaganda) section of the Luftstreitkräfte, and was heavily censored and edited. An English translation by J. Ellis Barker was published in 1918 as The Red Battle Flyer. Although Richthofen died before a revised version could be prepared, he is on record as repudiating the book, stating that it was "too insolent" (or "arrogant") and that he was "no longer that kind of person".
By 1918, Richthofen had become such a legend that it was feared that his death would be a blow to the morale of the German people. Richthofen himself refused to accept a ground job after his wound, stating that the average German soldier had no choice in his duties, and he would therefore continue to fly in combat. Certainly he had become part of a cult of hero-worship, assiduously encouraged by official propaganda. German propaganda circulated various false rumours, including that the British had raised squadrons specially to hunt down Richthofen, and were offering large rewards and an automatic Victoria Cross to any Allied pilot who shot him down. Passages from his correspondence indicate he may have at least half believed some of these stories himself.

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Death

Richthofen crashsite.ogg
Australian soldiers and airmen examine the remnants of Richthofen's triplane
209 Squadron Badge-the red eagle falling symbolizes the fall of the Red Baron
Australian airmen with Richthofen's triplane, 425/17, after it was dismembered by souvenir hunters
Captain Arthur Roy Brown was officially credited by the RAF with shooting down Richthofen.
Richthofen was fatally wounded just after 11:00 a.m. on 21 April 1918, while flying over Morlancourt Ridge, near the Somme River.49°56′0.60″N 2°32′43.71″E
At the time, the Baron had been pursuing (at very low altitude) a Sopwith Camelpiloted by a novice Canadian pilot, Lieutenant Wilfrid "Wop" May of No. 209 Squadron, Royal Air Force. In turn, the Baron was spotted and briefly attacked by a Camel piloted by a school friend (and flight commander) of May's, Canadian Captain Arthur "Roy" Brown, who had to dive steeply at very high speed to intervene, and then had to climb steeply to avoid hitting the ground. Richthofen turned to avoid this attack, and then resumed his pursuit of May.
It was almost certainly during this final stage in his pursuit of May that Richthofen was hit by a single .303 bullet, which caused such severe damage to his heart and lungs that it must have produced a very speedy death. In the last seconds of his life, he managed to make a hasty but controlled landing ( 49°55′56″N 2°32′16″E) in a field on a hill near the Bray-Corbie road, just north of the village ofVaux-sur-Somme, in a sector controlled by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). One witness, Gunner George Ridgway, stated that when he and other Australian soldiers reached the aircraft, Richthofen was still alive but died moments later. Another eye witness, Sergeant Ted Smoutof the Australian Medical Corps, reported that Richthofen's last word was "kaputt".
His Fokker Dr.I, 425/17, was not badly damaged by the landing, but it was soon taken apart by souvenir hunters.
No. 3 SquadronAustralian Flying Corps, as the nearest Allied air unit, assumed responsibility for the Baron's remains.
In 2009, Richthofen's death certificate was found in the archives in Ostrów Wielkopolski, Poland. Richthofen had briefly been stationed in Ostrów—which was part of Germany until the end of World War I—before going to war. The document, which is a one-page, handwritten form in a 1918 registry book of deaths, misspells Richthofen's name as "Richthoven" and simply states that he has "died 21 April 1918, from wounds sustained in combat".

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Controversy

Controversy and contradictory hypotheses continue to surround the identity of the person who fired the shot that actually killed Richthofen.
The RAF credited Brown with shooting down the Red Baron, but it is now generally agreed that the bullet that hit Richthofen was fired by someone on the ground. Richthofen died following an extremely serious and inevitably fatal chest wound from a single bullet, penetrating from the right armpit and resurfacing next to the left nipple. Brown's attack was from above and the left. Even more conclusively, Richthofen could not have continued his pursuit of May for as long as he did (up to two minutes) had this wound come from Brown's guns. Brown himself never spoke much about what happened that day, claiming, "There is no point in me commenting, as the evidence is already out there".
Group portrait of the officers and NCOs of the 24th Machine Gun Company in March 1918. Sergeant Cedric Popkin is second from the right in the middle row.
Many sources, including a 1998 article by Geoffrey Miller, a physician and historian of military medicine, and a 2003 U.S. Public Broadcasting Servicedocumentary, have suggested that Sergeant Cedric Popkin was the person most likely to have killed Richthofen. Popkin was an anti-aircraft (AA) machine gunner with the Australian 24th Machine Gun Company, and was using a Vickers gun. He fired at Richthofen's aircraft on two occasions: first as the Baron was heading straight at his position, and then at long range from the right. Given the nature of Richthofen's wounds, Popkin was in a position to fire the fatal shot, when the pilot passed him for a second time, on the right. Some confusion has been caused by a letter that Popkin wrote, in 1935, to an Australian official historian. It stated Popkin's belief that he had fired the fatal shot as Richthofen flew straight at his position. However, in the latter respect, Popkin was incorrect: the bullet that caused the Baron's death came from the side (see above).
A 2002 Discovery Channel documentary suggests that Gunner W. J. "Snowy" Evans, a Lewis machine gunner with the 53rd Battery, 14th Field Artillery Brigade, Royal Australian Artillery is likely to have killed von Richthofen. However, Miller and the PBS documentary dismiss this theory, because of the angle from which Evans fired at Richthofen.
Other sources have suggested that Gunner Robert Buie (also of the 53rd Battery) may have fired the fatal shot. There is little support for this theory. Nevertheless, in 2007, a municipality in Sydney recognised Buie as the man who shot down Richthofen, placing a plaque near Buie's former home.  Buie, who died in 1964, has never been officially recognised in any other way.
The commanding officer of No. 3 Squadron AFC, Major David Blake, initially suggested that Richthofen had been killed by the crew of one of his squadron's R.E.8s, which had also fought Richthofen's unit that afternoon. However, this was quickly disproved (if only by the time factor), and following anautopsy that he witnessed, Blake became a strong proponent of the view that an AA machine gunner had killed Richthofen.

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Theories about last combat

Richthofen was a highly experienced and skilled fighter pilot—fully aware of the risk from ground fire. Furthermore he was fully in accord with his late mentor Boelcke's rules of air fighting, which were strongly against taking foolish risks. In this context, it is universally accepted that Richthofen's judgement during his last combat was uncharacteristically unsound in several respects. Several theories have been proposed to account for his behaviour.
In 1999, a German medical researcher, Henning Allmers, published an article in British medical journal The Lancet, suggesting it was likely that brain damage from the head wound Richthofen suffered in July 1917 (see above) played a part in the Red Baron's death. This was supported by a 2004 paper by researchers at the University of Texas. Richthofen's behaviour after his injury was noted as consistent with brain-injured patients, and such an injury could account for his perceived lack of judgment on his final flight: flying too low over enemy territory and suffering target fixation.
Richthofen may have been suffering from cumulative combat stress, which made him fail to observe some of his usual precautions. One of the leading British air aces, Major Edward "Mick" Mannock, was killed by ground fire on 26 July 1918 while crossing the lines at low level, an action he had always cautioned his younger pilots against. One of the most popular of the French air aces, Georges Guynemer, went missing on 11 September 1917, probably while attacking a two-seater without realizing several Fokkers were escorting it.
There is a suggestion in Franks and Bennett's 2007 book that on the day of Richthofen's death, the prevailing wind was about 25 mph (40 km/h) easterly, rather than the usual 25 mph (40 km/h) westerly. This meant that Richthofen, heading generally westward at an airspeed of about 100 mph (160 km/h), was travelling over the ground at 125 mph (200 km/h) rather than the more typical ground speed of 75 mph (120 km/h). This was 60% faster than normal and he could easily have strayed over enemy lines without realizing it, especially since he was struggling with one jammed gun and another that was firing only short bursts before needing to be re-cocked.
At the time of Richthofen's death the front was in a highly fluid state, following the initial success of the German offensive of March–April 1918. This was part of Germany's last opportunity to win the war. In the face of Allied air superiority, the German air service was having difficulty acquiring vital reconnaissance information, and could do little to prevent Allied squadrons from completing effective reconnaissance and close support of their armies.

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Burial

No 3 Squadron AFC officers were pallbearers and other ranks from the squadron acted as a guard of honour during the Red Baron's funeral on 22 April 1918.
Richthofen funeral.ogg
The funeral of Manfred von Richthofen
In common with most Allied air officers, Major Blake, who was responsible for Richthofen's remains, regarded the Red Baron with great respect, and he organised a full military funeral, to be conducted by the personnel of No. 3 Squadron AFC.
Richthofen was buried in the cemetery at the village of Bertangles, near Amiens, on 22 April 1918. Six airmen with the rank of Captain—the same rank as Richthofen—served as pallbearers, and a guard of honour from the squadron's other ranks fired a salute. Allied squadrons stationed nearby presented memorial wreaths, one of which was inscribed with the words, "To Our Gallant and Worthy Foe".
A speculation that his opponents organised a flypast at his funeral, giving rise to the missing man formation, is most unlikely and totally unsupported by any contemporary evidence.
In the early 1920s the French authorities created a military cemetery at Fricourt, in which a very large number of German war dead, including Richthofen, were reinterred. In 1925, Manfred von Richthofen's youngest brother, Bolko, recovered the body from Fricourt and took the Red Baron home to Germany. The family's intention was for Manfred to rest in the Schweidnitz cemetery, next to the graves of his father and his brother Lothar, who had been killed in a post-war air crash in 1922. The German government requested, however, that the final resting place be the Invalidenfriedhof Cemetery in Berlin, where many German military heroes and past leaders were buried and the family agreed. Later the Nazi regime organised a grandiose memorial ceremony over this grave, erecting a massive new tombstone with the single word: “Richthofen”. During the Cold War the Invalidenfriedhof was on the boundary of the Soviet zone in Berlin, and the tombstone became pockmarked with bullets fired at attempted escapees to the west. In 1975, the remains were moved to a family plot at the Südfriedhof in Wiesbaden, where he is buried next to his brother Bolko, his sister Elisabeth, and her husband.
Grave in Berlin (1931)

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Number of victories

For decades after World War I, some authors questioned whether Richthofen achieved 80 victories, insisting that his record was exaggerated for propaganda purposes. Some claimed that he took credit for aircraft downed by his squadron or wing.
In fact, Richthofen’s victories are better documented than those of most aces. A full list of the aircraft the Red Baron was credited with shooting down was published as early as 1958—with documented RFC/RAF squadron details, aircraft serial numbers, and the identities of Allied airmen killed or captured—73 of the 80 are listed as matching recorded British losses. A study conducted by British historian Norman Franks with two colleagues, published in Under the Guns of the Red Baron in 1998, reached the same conclusion about the high degree of accuracy of Richthofen's claimed victories. There were also unconfirmed victories that would put his actual total as high as 100 or more.
For comparison, the highest scoring Allied ace was Frenchman René Fonck, with 75 confirmed victories and further 52 unconfirmed behind enemy lines. The highest scoring British Empirefighter pilots were Canadian Billy Bishop credited with 72 victories, and Mick Mannock with 50 confirmed kills and a further 11 unconfirmed.
It is also significant that while Richthofen's early victories and the establishment of his reputation coincided with a period of German air superiority, many of his successes were achieved against a numerically superior enemy, who were flying fighter aircraft that were on the whole better than his own.

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Honours, tributes and relics

Memorial in Polish at Richthofen's former home in today's Świdnica (formerly Schweidnitz)
Relics
Decorations and awards
Tributes
At various times, several different German military aviation Geschwader (literally "squadrons"; equivalent to Commonwealth air force "groups", French escadrons or USAF "wings") have been named after the Baron:
In 1941, a newly launched Kriegsmarine (navy) seaplane tender was also named Richthofen.
The engine of Richthofen's DR.I was donated to the Imperial War Museum in London, where it is still on display. The control column (joystick) of Richthofen's aircraft can be seen at the Australian War Memorial, in Canberra. The Royal Canadian Military Institute, in Toronto, holds two parts of the aircraft: its seat and a side panel signed by the pilots of Brown's squadron.

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See also

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Notes

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Footnotes

  1. ^ For instance his brother Lothar also used it.
  2. ^ Not to be confused with Bolko von Richthofen the archaeologist, a distant cousin
  3. ^ The definition of "kaputt" is often in contention.[45][46][47]
  4. ^ Accounts that the honour guard were Australian infantry are apparently based on the fact that in photographs and film of the event they are wearing AIF uniforms, complete with slouch hats – this is simply because members of the AFC, which was part of the Australian army, wore normal army uniforms.
  5. ^ First World War fighter pilots very rarely returned in formation from a mission (the point of the "missing man")—it was much more common after a fight to return singly or in pairs—among other reasons because in the absence of radio intercommunication reforming scattered aircraft was simply not practical.
  6. ^ For many years, World War I aviation historians believed Richthofen had received the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order prior to his submission for the Military Max Joseph Order. However, recent research has proved that he received the usual class of that order common for an officer of his rank: the 4th Class with Swords of the Bavarian Military Merit Order.
  7. ^ No record or photographic evidence has been seen to indicate Richthofen qualified for this badge. However, he successfully completed the training and served for nearly five months as an observer before retraining as a pilot

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Citations

  1. a b Kilduff, p. 6.
  2. ^ "Freiherr"Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  3. ^ Richthofen, Manfred von. Der Rote Baron (The Red Baron). Norderstedt, Germany: BOD, 2008 (reprint). ISBN 978-3-8370-9217-2.
  4. ^ Wright 1976, p. 31.
  5. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 36.
  6. ^ Burrows 1970, pp. 37–38.
  7. ^ Wright 1976, p. 30.
  8. ^ Preußen 1914, p. 400.
  9. ^ "von Richthofen's autobiography: Early battlefield experiences." Richthofen.com. Retrieved: 13 June 2009.
  10. a b c McAllister 1982, p. 52.
  11. ^ "von Richthofen's autobiography: Transfer to the Luftstreitkräfte." Richthofen.com. Retrieved: 13 June 2009.
  12. ^ McAllister 1982, pp. 52–53.
  13. ^ McAllister 1982, pp. 53–54.
  14. a b c d McAllister 1982, p. 54.
  15. ^ McAllister 1982, pp. 54–55.
  16. a b McAllister 1982, p. 56.
  17. ^ It has been suggested (by Burrows) that he was simply bored with the procedure and that this was an excuse to discontinue it.
  18. ^ English 2003, p. 62.
  19. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 103.
  20. ^ McAllister 1982, p. 57.
  21. ^ Guttman 2009, pp. 64–65.
  22. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 103.
  23. ^ Grey and Thetford, 1970, p. 100.
  24. ^ "Richtofen." Theaerodrome.com. Retrieved: 10 August 2010.
  25. ^ Guttman 2009, p. 63.
  26. ^ Baker 1991
  27. a b McAllister 1982, p. 59.
  28. ^ Sanders, Kevin A. "Rittmeister Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen." Manion's International Auction House. Retrieved: 12 January 2008.
  29. ^ Bodenschatz 1998
  30. ^ McAllister 1982, p. 61.
  31. a b McAllister 1982, p. 60.
  32. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 154.
  33. ^ Burrows 1970, pp. 160-163.
  34. ^ Burrows 1970, pp. 162–163.
  35. ^ von Richthofen, Manfred et al. "Der rote Kampfflieger." Deutscher Verlag (Ullstein), 1933.
  36. ^ Johnson, Karl (Contributing Editor for WTJ). "'The Red Fighter Pilot' by Manfred von Richthofen (online edition)." The War Times Journal. Retrieved: 27 May 2007.
  37. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 152.
  38. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 163.
  39. ^ Burrows 1970, p. 131.
  40. ^ Franks and Bennett 1997, p. 126.
  41. a b c d McAllister 1982, p. 63.
  42. ^ McAllister 1982, p. 64.
  43. a b c d e f g h Miller, Dr. Geoffrey. "The Death of Manfred von Richthofen: Who fired the fatal shot?"Sabretache: Journal and Proceedings of the Military History Society of Australia, vol. XXXIX, no. 2, 1998.
  44. a b Unsolved History: Death of the Red Baron, 2002, Discovery Channel
  45. ^ "Synonym für gestorben – Synonyme | Antonyme (Gegenteile) – Fremdwörter von gestorben."google.com, 17 May 2009. Retrieved: 13 June 2009.
  46. ^ Definition
  47. ^ "Definition: Kaputt." Ego4u.com, German-English dictionary, 22 April 2009. Retrieved: 13 June 2009.
  48. ^ "Polish historian finds death certificate of WWI German flying ace 'Red Baron'." Daily News (New York). Retrieved: 8 December 2009.
  49. a b c d e "Who Killed the Red Baron? Explore Competing Theories." Pbs.org, (Public Broadcasting Service) NOVA, 2003. Retrieved: 13 June 2009.
  50. ^ Day, Mark. "Unsung No.1 with a bullet." The Australian, 7 April 2007.
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  52. ^ Allmers, Dr. Henning. "Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen's medical record—Was the "Red Baron" fit to fly?" The Lancet, 354 (9177), 7 August 1999, pp. 502–504. Published online by anzacs.net. Retrieved: 23 September 2007.
  53. ^ "Georges Guynemer: Beloved French Ace, 53 victories." acepilots.com. Retrieved: 2 July 2009.
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  58. ^ Franks and Bennett 1997, p. 9.
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  60. a b Franks and Bailey 1992
  61. ^ Ordre de la IVe Armée, n°1599, 23 January 1919
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  65. ^ O’Connor 1999, pp. 371–374 (errata and addenda).

[edit]
References

  • Baker, David. Manfred von Richthofen: The Man and the Aircraft He Flew. McGregor, Minnesota: Voyageur Press, 1991. ISBN 1-87154-706-7.
  • Bodenschatz, KarlHunting With Richthofen: Sixteen Months of Battle with J G Freiherr Von Richthofen No. 1. London: Grub Street, 1998. ISBN 1-89869-797-3.
  • Burrows, William E. Richthofen: A True History of the Red Baron. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1970. ISBN 0-15177-172-3.
  • English, Dave. The Air Up There: More Great Quotations on Flight. Chicago, Illinois: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2003. ISBN 0-07141-036-8.
  • Franks, Norman L.R. and Frank W. Bailey. Over the Front: A Complete Record of Fighter Aces and Units of the United States and French Air Services, 1914–1918. London: Grub Street, 1992. ISBN 978-0948817540.
  • Franks, Norman, Hal Giblin and Nigel McCrery. Under the Guns of the Red Baron: Complete Record of Von Richthofen's Victories and Victims. London: Grub Street, 2007, First edition 1995. ISBN 1-84067-145-9.
  • Grey, Peter and Owen Thetford. German Aircraft of the First World War. London: Putnam, 2nd ed., 1970.ISBN 0-93385-271-1.
  • Guttman, Jon. Pusher Aces of World War 1 (Aircraft of the Aces #88). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Co, 2009. ISBN 978-1846034176.
  • Kilduff, Peter. The Red Baron: Beyond the Legend. London: Cassell, 1994. ISBN 0-304-35207-1.
  • McAllister, Hayden, ed. Flying Stories. London: Octopus Books, 1982. ISBN 0-706401734-8.
  • O’Connor, Neal W. The Aviation Awards of the Grand Duchies of Baden and Oldenburg Foundation of Aviation World War I: Aviation Awards of Imperial Germany in World War I and the Men Who Earned Them – Volume VI. Stratford, Connecticut: Flying Machines Press, 1999. ISBN 0-76431-626-5.
  • Preußen, Kriegsministerium, Geheime Kriegs-Kanzlei. Rangliste der Königlich Preußischen Armee und des XIII. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn, 1914.
  • Robertson, Bruce (ed.) von Richthofen and the Flying Circus. Letchworth, UK: Harleyford, 1958.
  • Robertson, Linda R. The Dream Of Civilized Warfare: World War I Flying Aces and the American Imagination. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University Of Minnesota Press, 2005. ISBN 978-0816642717.
  • Von Richthofen, Manfred. The Red Baron. Norderstedt, Germany: BOD, 2008 (reprint). ISBN 978-3-8370-9217-2.
  • Von Richthofen, Manfred. Red Fighter Pilot: The Autobiography of the Red Baron. St Petersburg, Florida: Red and Black Publishers, 2007 (reprint). ISBN 978-0-9791813-3-7.
  • Wright, Nicolas. The Red Baron. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1976. ISBN 0-283-98298-5.
Concerning death

Comment:

I'm sure most of you recognize the above article as in the style of Wikipedia, which it is.

A little piece of trivia not mentioned in the article is that Richthofen was succeeded by Herman Goering as commander of the Flying Circus.

I did read his memoirs.  He wasn't a great writer, but my favourite line from the book is, "I entered the Prussian Military Academy at the tender age of 11.  I was not particularly eager to become a cadet, but my father wished it, and I was not consulted."

That's exactly how one would expect a member of the German aristocracy to treat his children!

Also, the Australian gunners can go jump in a lake.  I believe Richthofen was shot down by Captain Brown.  A lucky shot by an Australian on the ground just doesn't seem a fitting death for the Red Baron.

Dan  88!